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Symbiosis, Commensalism, Parasitism, & Others [Jamb Tutorial on Biology

This Biology Tutorial will focus on the SYMBIOSIS. At the end of the tutorial, you can download it for FREE. Please share this page with your friends who may need it.

Last two days our focus has been Mathematics. Today on our JAMB FREE TUTORIAL, we will focus on biology.

We will teach the following topics;

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  • Symbiosis
    • Mutualism
    • Commensalism
    • Parasitism
  • Predation
  • Competition
  • Tolerance
  • Adaptation

Now the tutorial for today!


This is an interaction between organisms which can be benefit to one or both. According to biologydictionary, symbiosis may be ‘obligate’, in which case the relationship between the two species is so interdependent, that each of the organisms is unable to survive without the other, or ‘facultative’, in which the two species engage in a symbiotic partnership through choice, and can survive individually.

Types of symbiosis are Mutualism, Commensalism, Amensalism, Parasitism. According to, Amensalism is any relationship between organisms of different species in which one organism is inhibited or destroyed while the other organism remains unaffected.


(1) Mutualism: It is a close association between two organisms in which both of them benefits from each other. A member is called symbiont. They are always in mutualism without harm.


  1. Alga and fungus in Lichen: Remember that Lichen is formed when Alga and fungus exist together i.e. lichen is made up of two organism namely Alga ad Fungus.
    In this association, the alga gets protection from the fungus (i.e. the fungus encloses and protects it from physical damage and from drying up). Alga also uses some of the water absorbed by fungus. The fungus uses part of the food manufactured by the green alga.
  2. Bacteria in the rumen of ruminant: Bacteria and other protozoa in the rumen of ruminants e.g. sheep, cattle etc. helps the ruminant in the digestion of cellulose to sugars, synthesizing amino acids and vitamins while the ruminants provides food and shelter for the bacteria.

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(2) Commensalism: It is an association whereby two organisms living together in which only one i.e. the commensal benefits from the association while the other is neither benefited nor harmed.


  1. Remora fish and Shark: The remora feeds on the left over food particles of the shark and also gains protection from the shark, by attaching itself to the body of the shark. The shark is neither benefited nor harmed due to the presence of the remora.
  2. Man and Intestinal bacteria: Some bacteria in the large intestine of man feed on digested food there. The bacteria gains food and protection from the man while the man is neither harmed or benefits from the association.


(3) Parasitism: is a close association between two organisms, one which is known as parasite, lives in or on and feeds on the other organism which is known as the The parasites benefits from the association while the host is harmed and may die.


  1. Man and Tapeworm: Tapeworm is a parasite which lives in the small intestine of man where it drives the benefit of a habitat, protection and food. The man being the host suffers because the tapeworm takes the part of food eaten and digested by the man.
  2. Mistletoe and Flowering Plants: The mistletoe plant is a parasite that lives on other large flowering plants. Mistletoe gains support from the flowering plants, the flowering plant raises it up to a position from which it receives sunlight


Predation: is the type of association between two organisms in which the predator kills the other called the prey and directly feeds on it. The predator is larger in size and always stronger than the prey, it benefits by obtaining its food while the prey is completely eliminated.


  1. The hawk and chicks of Domestic fowls: Hawk is the predator that catches, kills and eats the prey which is the young chicks of domestic fowls. The hawk benefits while the young is eliminated.
  2. The lion and goat.


Competition: it is the interactions between two organisms of the same or different species in which one outgrows the other and survives while the other can either survive or grow.

As living organisms develops variation and adapt themselves to their new environment, they normally struggle over the limited resources in their new environment.

Resources Living Organism Competes For

  • Food
  • Light
  • Water
  • Space
  • Mineral salt.

Types of Competition

  1. Intra-Specific Competition, and;
  2. Inter-Specific Competition

(1) Intra-Specific Competition:

This is the struggle for limited resources which occurs between members of same species or members of the same population.

For instance when a parent plant  drops all her seeds around her, when the seeds germinates into young seedlings, they usually becomes overcrowded around the parent plant and will compete for all the resources around the parent plant such as water in the soil, mineral in the salt in the soil, space and light.

(2) Inter-Specific Competition:

This is the struggle for limited resources which occurs between organism of different species or different populations. E.g. When paramecium can datum and paramecium aurela are grown in the same culture, the two species of paramecium will compete for all the resources or nutrient in the culture.

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It is the ability of living organisms to tolerate or withstand unfavourable conditions or changes in their various environment which do affects their survival.


Is the ability of an organism to live successfully in a particular environment (habitat) as a result of its appearance, behaviour and structure.

Every living organism has to adapt to its environment in order to survive.




Please note the following

  • The first person to answer the questions correctly wins N2,000.
  • The winner will be announced on this website and contacted via email address.
  • When contacted, you will be asked to provide the account number you want the money to be sent to.
  • By in “your own words” below, we mean you should not copy from any book or website!
  • You have higher chances of wining when you explain your answer very well.

The questions…

In your own words do the following:

  1. Explain and give 4 examples of Symbiosis
  2. Explain and give 4 examples of Parasitism
  3. Explain and give 4 examples of Commensalism
  4. Explain predation and give 4 examples.

Use the comment box below to provide the answers.

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Edwin kamdiri

symbiosis, which is a close and long-term interaction between two or more different species. There are three main types of symbiotic relationships: mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism. In mutualism, both species benefit from the relationship. An example is the relationship between clownfish and sea anemones. Clownfish live among the stinging tentacles of sea anemones, and the sea anemones benefit from the fish’s waste products. In commensalism, one species benefits from the relationship. Predation is a type of interaction in which one species, the predator, kills and eats another species, the prey. It’s a major force in shaping ecosystems and is found… Read more »


Answer num 1 Explain and give 4 example of symbiosis 1 The relationship between certain species and acacia trees. The ants lives in the hollow thorns of the acacia trees and help to protect the trees from herbivores by attacking any that try to eat the leaves or bank 2. Lactobacillus and humans Lactobacillus species are believed to enhance intestinal barrier defence by promoting mucus secretion 3. Cells and mitochondria Mitochondria are membrane bound cells organelles the generate most of the chemical energy needed to power the cells biochemical reactions 4. Coral and algae Coral have a symbiotic relationship with… Read more »


I love this

Mba Destiny ugochi

Explain symbiosis and 4examples ANS: symbiosis is a close long-term association between organisms of different species. Example: Mycorrhiza Pin worm Amobiasis Viruses. Parasitism and examples ANS: Parasitism is an association between different species of organisms in which parasite depends on it’s host to meet its metabolic need. Example: Protozoa Lice Leeches Fungi/fleas Commensalism and examples ANS: Commensalism is an interaction where one individual benefits from another species, while the other is unaffected. For example one organism can provide essential nutrients or resources to another organism. This type of cross feeding is common in soil organisms. Example: Whales and barnacles Burdock… Read more »

Okafor chinaza

Examples of amensalism


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Maduabuchi williams

1.algae and fungus in a lichen the algae manufacture food made from sunlight by photosynthesis while the fungus provide carbohydrates,protection,for the algae. The bacteria of a rumen in a ruminant The ruminant(pig) provide shelter,food ,for the bacteria while the bacteria help the pig to digest cellulose. Parasitic The tapeworm and man Here the tapeworm derives all the expense of man (food,water &shelter) while th host suffers or die The roundworm and the human The human provide food ,shelter for the roundworm while the host suffers or die while the parasite unaffected Commensal The epiphyte and a tree The epiphyte get… Read more »

Micheal Emmanuel Chukwuem

Symbiosis in my own understanding is a close friendship or association between two organism and both of them enjoy together and work for each other I’d they work hand in hand to see that they survive Example of symbiosis 1. Alga and fungus- both of them work hand in hand and each protect the other from danger 2. Bacteria in the rumen of ruminant Bacteria and protozoa in the rumen of the ruminant like sheep goat and those animals that have four chambered stomach. the bacteria does it work while the ruminant does its own work Commensalism is an association… Read more »

Darlington Imhanzuaria

Symbiosis: this is a relationship whereby both organisms benefit from each and exhibit a mutual relationship. E.g microorganisms like bacteria helps in digestion in humans, oxpecker birds and rhinoceros, dog and humans, goby fish and shrimps. Parasitism: this is relationship between two organisms whereby one benefits greatly from the other one, while the other is either damaged, destroyed or harmed. The organism that benefits is called the parasite while the one that suffers is called the host. E.g mosquitoes and humans, tapeworms and humans, dogs and lice, mistletoe and flowering plants, humans and lice. Commensalism: this is a relationship where… Read more »


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Rock Segun

1. Symbiosis is a form of relationship in which both participant(symbionts) benefits from each other, no one is harmed, everyone gain. Example; 1. Oyester and crab 2. Flowering plants and bees 2. Parasitism is the close relationship in which one called the parasite gain at the expense of the other called the host which suffers the loss or may die. Example; 1. Tapeworm in the digestive system of man. 2. Roundworms and pigs 3. Mistletoe and flowering plants 4. Lice and cattle 3. Commensalism is the relationship in which one of the participants gains while the other isn’t harmed, it… Read more »


Symbiosis-is the association when both organisms benefit from each other.e.butterfly and insect pollinated flower;herbivore and cellulose digesting bacteria;man and intestinal bacteria;alga and fungus. Parasitism-is the association where one organism is harmed and not benefit while the other receive food and shelter.e.g protozoan(plasmodium) living in the red blood corpuscles;dodder plant and host plant;roundworms in small intestine of man;ticks that live on dogs Commensalism-is the association which one benefits while the other neither benefitted nor harm.e.g use of trees by birds;remora and shark;dispersal of the fruits of some plants like triumfetta by animals;epiphytic plants(plants that grow on another plant to reach air,water… Read more »

Ibrahim kabir

Q1 symbiosys can be defined as a close feeding relationship between two organisms in which both organisms called symbiont benefit from each other Examples 1; termite and protozoa living in the gut: In this feeding association the protozoa living in the gut of the termite helps the termite to digest cellulose while the termite provides protection and also food for the protozoa 2; nitrogen fixing bacteria in the root nodules of legumes: in this association the bacteria is able to fix atmospheric nitrogen directly into the plant and the plant provide protection and food for the bacteria 3:sea anemone and… Read more »

Victor A.

Symbiosis is the association between two organisms whereby they benefit from each other. Four examples include: 1. Algae and fungus in lichen 2.Flower and insects 3. Protozoa in termites intestine 4. Bacteria in a cattles intestine Parasitism is the association between two organisms in which one derives nutrients from the host and causes harm in the process Four examples include 1. Man and tapeworm 2. Mistletoe and plants 3. Ticks and fleas on animals 4. Fungus on plant produce Commensalism is the association between two organisms of different species which one of the organisms benefits from the other Four examples… Read more »




1.Examples of Symbiosis: 1. Toxoplasma It is a parasitic protist that may infect a range of animals including mice, rats, and people. To reproduce sexually, the protist must infect a cat. The cat is not directly affected, but when a mouse is infected it brings harm. Mice infected with toxoplasma lose their fear of cats, which of course may bring them in close contact with a predator. 2. Microbes Microbes are important for human health. For example, human breast milk contains oligosaccharides, which are short chains of sugar molecules. There is no nutritional value to babies, but the microbes are… Read more »

Animba john

ANSWERS 1) SYMBIOSIS: it is an association in which two organism live together meanwhile benefiting from each other Examples a) flower and insects : because they aid in flowers pollination b) protozoa in the intestine of termites: C)alga and fungus in lichen D) bacteria in rumen of ruminants 2) PARASITISM:it is a association in which the parasite lives in or outside their host EXAMPLES 1) man and tapeworm 2) mistletoe and flowering plants 3)ticks and cattle 4) liverfluke and sheep 3) COMMENSALISM: it is an association by which two organism live together, only one benefit from each other 1) oyster… Read more »

Afolayan Jeremiah

Symbiosis is an association between two organism in which both organism gain from each other and none of them is harmed. Example. 1 termite and protozoa in the gut 2 sea anemones and crabs🦀 3 algae and fungi in lichen 4 nitrogen fixing bacterial and root nodules of leguminous plant. Parasitism is an association between organism of different species in which the parasite gain while the host is harmed. Examples 1 mistletoe and flowering plant 2 fleas in 🐈 cats 3 man and tapeworm 4 ticks on dogs. Commensalism is a relationship between organism of different species in which one… Read more »


Symbiosis is a relationship between 2 organisms in which they both gain from each other . They live in peace and harmony Examples 1.algae and fungus 2.bacteria and rumen of ruminant stomach 3.protozoa in intestine of termite and insects Parasitism is a relationship between 2 organisms in which one known as parasite lives on and feed on the other organism called host, causing harm to it. Examples and tapeworm 2.mistletoe and flowering plants and roundworm 4. Tick and dog Commensalism is the relationship between 2 organisms in which one benefits from the association while the other does… Read more »


SYMBIOSIS: An association between two unrelated organisms which are benefit from each other Eg cattle and tick birds Mycorrhiza Lichens Gut micro organisms PARASTISM:An association in which one organisms derive benefit and causes harm to the other organism Eg Man and Tapworm Dodder and other plants Nematodes and Humans Filaria worms and Humans COMNENSALISM:Aan association between two unrelated organisms where one benefit and the other is unaffected Eg Shark and remora Epiphtye and tree Clown fish and sea anemone Large bacteria and Humans Intestines PREDATION:An association in which one called the predator feeds on the other organism called the prey… Read more »


1 ..Symbiosis is the communication/association/interaction btwn 2 or more different organism living in a close association. Symbiosis is an interaction that is evolved,between organisms of different species,also a relationship of organisms which benefit either ways. Examples… Commensalism,parasitism, mutualism and ecto symbiosis and endo symbiosis(lices and protozoan). 2.These is a place or environment which involves organisms of different species in which some organisms(parasite) gains,while d other(host)suffers. Examples… Fleas,roundworm,lice and tick 3.commensalism consist of an environment with organisms of different species whereby only one species benefit and the other is not harmed . Examples.. Remora fish,guby fish,cattle egrets(birds that eats tick) and… Read more »

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