JAMB Free Tutorial, Day III: Today’s tutorial comes with N2,000. Our focus subject for today is Biology. We will discuss, Symbiosis, Commensalism, Parasitism, Predation, Competition, Tolerance, and Adaptation. We will ask 4 questions (exercises).
Last two days our focus has been Mathematics. Today on our JAMB FREE TUTORIAL, we will focus on biology. We will teach the following topics;
At the end of the today’s tutorial, we will ask five questions and the first person to answer them correctly will wins Two Thousand Naira N2,000. The money will be transferred to the winners account.
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Now the tutorial for today!
This is an interaction between organisms which can be benefit to one or both. According to biologydictionary, symbiosis may be ‘obligate’, in which case the relationship between the two species is so interdependent, that each of the organisms is unable to survive without the other, or ‘facultative’, in which the two species engage in a symbiotic partnership through choice, and can survive individually.
Types of symbiosis are Mutualism, Commensalism, Amensalism, Parasitism. According to study.com, Amensalism is any relationship between organisms of different species in which one organism is inhibited or destroyed while the other organism remains unaffected.
(1) Mutualism: It is a close association between two organisms in which both of them benefits from each other. A member is called symbiont. They are always in mutualism without harm.
- Alga and fungus in Lichen: Remember that Lichen is formed when Alga and fungus exist together i.e. lichen is made up of two organism namely Alga ad Fungus.
In this association, the alga gets protection from the fungus (i.e. the fungus encloses and protects it from physical damage and from drying up). Alga also uses some of the water absorbed by fungus. The fungus uses part of the food manufactured by the green alga.
- Bacteria in the rumen of ruminant: Bacteria and other protozoa in the rumen of ruminants e.g. sheep, cattle etc. helps the ruminant in the digestion of cellulose to sugars, synthesizing amino acids and vitamins while the ruminants provides food and shelter for the bacteria.
(2) Commensalism: It is an association whereby two organisms living together in which only one i.e. the commensal benefits from the association while the other is neither benefited nor harmed.
- Remora fish and Shark: The remora feeds on the left over food particles of the shark and also gains protection from the shark, by attaching itself to the body of the shark. The shark is neither benefited nor harmed due to the presence of the remora.
- Man and Intestinal bacteria: Some bacteria in the large intestine of man feed on digested food there. The bacteria gains food and protection from the man while the man is neither harmed or benefits from the association.
(3) Parasitism: is a close association between two organisms, one which is known as parasite, lives in or on and feeds on the other organism which is known as the The parasites benefits from the association while the host is harmed and may die.
- Man and Tapeworm: Tapeworm is a parasite which lives in the small intestine of man where it drives the benefit of a habitat, protection and food. The man being the host suffers because the tapeworm takes the part of food eaten and digested by the man.
- Mistletoe and Flowering Plants: The mistletoe plant is a parasite that lives on other large flowering plants. Mistletoe gains support from the flowering plants, the flowering plant raises it up to a position from which it receives sunlight
Predation: is the type of association between two organisms in which the predator kills the other called the prey and directly feeds on it. The predator is larger in size and always stronger than the prey, it benefits by obtaining its food while the prey is completely eliminated.
- The hawk and chicks of Domestic fowls: Hawk is the predator that catches, kills and eats the prey which is the young chicks of domestic fowls. The hawk benefits while the young is eliminated.
- The lion and goat.
Competition: it is the interactions between two organisms of the same or different species in which one outgrows the other and survives while the other can either survive or grow.
As living organisms develops variation and adapt themselves to their new environment, they normally struggle over the limited resources in their new environment.
Resources Living Organism Competes For
- Mineral salt.
Types of Competition
- Intra-Specific Competition, and;
- Inter-Specific Competition
(1) Intra-Specific Competition:
This is the struggle for limited resources which occurs between members of same species or members of the same population.
For instance when a parent plant drops all her seeds around her, when the seeds germinates into young seedlings, they usually becomes overcrowded around the parent plant and will compete for all the resources around the parent plant such as water in the soil, mineral in the salt in the soil, space and light.
(2) Inter-Specific Competition:
This is the struggle for limited resources which occurs between organism of different species or different populations. E.g. When paramecium can datum and paramecium aurela are grown in the same culture, the two species of paramecium will compete for all the resources or nutrient in the culture.
It is the ability of living organisms to tolerate or withstand unfavourable conditions or changes in their various environment which do affects their survival.
Is the ability of an organism to live successfully in a particular environment (habitat) as a result of its appearance, behaviour and structure.
Every living organism has to adapt to its environment in order to survive.
THE END OF TODAY’S TUTORIAL
If you HAVE ANY QUESTION, PLEASE FEEL FREE TO ASK USING THE COMMENT BOX BELOW.
Credit: This BIOLOGY tutorial was prepared by Ejimgini, Ozioma Promise a Biology/Chemistry Tutor.
Please note the following
- The first person to answer the questions correctly wins N2,000.
- The winner will be announced on this website and contacted via email address.
- When contacted, you will be asked to provide the account number you want the money to be sent to.
- By in “your own words” below, we mean you should not copy from any book or website!
- You have higher chances of wining when you explain your answer very well.
In your own words do the following:
- Explain and give 4 examples of Symbiosis
- Explain and give 4 examples of Parasitism
- Explain and give 4 examples of Commensalism
- Explain predation and give 4 examples.
Use the comment box below to provide the answers.
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